Elevator machine and drive system in different types of modern elevators, what are the elevator control systems? The DC motor has excellent speed regulating performance characteristics and wide regulating range, thus, it is used in elevators for a long time and is driven by motor generators.
It controls the elevator speed up to 4 meters per second, however, the unit structure is large, the energy consumption is high, the maintenance workload is large, and the cost is high, therefore, it is often used in buildings that require high speed and comfort.
Elevator machine and drive system
The elevators are small in size and light in weight, in addition to their high efficiency, energy saving and other characteristics, which have become similar to all the advantages of the previous elevators. ? This is what we will answer by explaining the types of elevator engines.
Elevator machine and drive system with SCR system has been used for direct power supply for elevator control cabinets for a long time in the industry, this system is used in elevators for comfort, especially in low speed, therefore, it is applied in late.
Usually almost simultaneously with the computer, compared to a direct power lift in the form of a motor-generator unit, the SCR system has several of the following advantages:
- This system saves up to 35% space, up to 40% weight and energy between 25% to 35%, and this system is used to achieve the fastest speed in elevators.
- It has a speed ratio of 1200:1 and is one of the fastest elevators in the world.
- The hoist controlled by the VVVF system is driven by an AC motor, however it can reach the level of a DC motor.
- Its speed has reached 6 meters per second. The high-pressure oil inside the cylinder is actuated by a motor, and the movable plug moves to drive the axle compartment at a slow speed.
- It is generally used in buildings with an area of no more than 20 meters.
gear drive reducer drive
The elevator machine and drive system are used as AC and DC motors to move the axle compartments through the idler gear system and cable pullers for tractors, these kinds of motors are mainly used in medium and low speed escalators.
direct drive system
The tractor, also known as “Gearless type”, is directly driven by the larger multi-pole motor, used in high-speed ladder, and has a complex electronic control system, which is one of the most important parts of the elevator machine and driving system.
Linear drive motor
It does not depend only on the height of the buildings, but it consumes a lot of electricity and is still in the experimental development stage.
Inorganic chamber engine
The traction motor is installed directly at the top or bottom of the bridge room, and a cable is used to pull the bridge in all directions. This is used in small bridge rooms and personal elevators, thus eliminating the traditional machine room.
Classification of elevator machine and traction drive system
The propulsion system in the elevator operates with an open loop of single induction alternating current, as well as:
- Open loop drive system for variable speed elevator uses two AC motors.
- Two-speed AC motor, semi-closed loop voltage regulation and motor speed regulation system.
- The elevator drive system is powered by an AC motor with two speeds, fully enclosed voltage regulation and speed regulation.
- Single speed AC motor, fully enclosed voltage system, elevator driving system (VVVF for short).
- In this script, the elevator drive system of AC permanent magnet synchronous motor is described, in which the voltage regulation and speed regulation are fully closed by closed loop, and VVVF technology is used for short.
- In this system, the drive speed and operating voltage are determined automatically by a closed feed circuit in the motor.
Classification by device
The relay is used to control the industrial operations of the elevator machine and drive system, PLC is a kind of microcomputer used in industrial control, and these microcomputers are monitored.
Classification by use
Elevator machine and drive system are classified using methods as follows:
- Goods hoist electric control system.
- Elevator sundries electrical control system.
- Electric control system features for passenger elevators, residential elevators and patient elevators.
Home elevator components
The machine is a motor that controls the movement of the elevator cabin, whether during ascent or descent, and the power of the machine depends on the weight of the load in the elevator, its speed, and the height of the building. This machine is located in a room designated for it, and its other most important components include the following:
- The controller is an electrical control panel for the elevator,
and its role is to control all elevator devices.
- The emergency braking system consists of a device that aims to adjust the speed of the elevator, and it is installed inside the machine room and the parachute, and it is installed with the cabin, and its main task is to stop the elevator immediately if its speed exceeds the specified speed.
- The elevator doors consist of a ring, a leaf and an automatic operating system. The opening and closing of the door leaf is controlled by the automatic system.
Other components of the elevator
The device specialized in supplying electrical power to the elevator,
and it is designed to work automatically so that it operates the devices necessary
to operate the elevator and perform all its functions to the nearest floor, as well as:
- The automatic cab gate is installed at the top of the cab, ensuring smooth and hassle-free operation, and speeds up the process of opening and closing the cab door,
and is controlled by an electric motor.
- The rails are made of solid iron and serve as a guide for the movement of the cab
and the ballast, which leads to a fast and comfortable movement for both.
- The counterweight’s job is to lower the energy required to operate the elevator.
- The cabin is the platform that transports passengers in the elevator. It is made of iron and decorated with norsta, carpeting, or plywood.
Home elevator mechanics
Elevators must have a certain amount of friction between some parts,
and attention must also be paid to their traction ability.
So that it is suitable for the direct friction between the machine hoop
and the steel ropes through which the lift and the balance weight are suspended,
so that the elevator can control the load during ascent, movement and when stopping, as well as:
- When an elevator is designed, acceleration is considered due to the effect of gravitational force.
- The maximum angle that can be reached shall be in the single-wrap pattern; in this mode,
each rope only wraps in one turn around the hoop for approximately 180 degrees.
- It is also necessary to adjust the height between the two centers
and the horizontal distance between them in this place.
- The diameter of the hoop shall be 40 times greater than the diameter of the rope,
to ensure that there is sufficient distance for the rope to wrap around the hoop,
and to reduce the stress to which the rope is subjected when it passes the hoop.
- Actual friction between materials increases.
At the end of the article, we have provided you with the most important details of the elevator machine and drive system, and the classification of engine types, methods of use, and drive systems