Elevator traction machines are among the important pieces that must be carefully chosen when purchasing elevators for residential or commercial buildings. It is known that the types of elevators depend greatly in their operation on the type of machine used, whether gear-driven machines or magnetic-powered machines.
In this article, we will discuss in detail everything related to traction machines for elevators, their importance, and the most important criteria on the basis of which these machines are selected.
An overview of elevator traction machines
The quality of traction elevators in their operating system depends on the use of traction machines, which are a group of ropes made of solid steel, and also on the pulleys that are used in the ascent and descent of the elevator cabin, and on the basis of this system the weight of the cabin is weighed.
Sometimes steel belts are also used instead of these ropes with certain types of elevators according to their specifications.
One of the most important features of elevators that rely on traction machines for their operation is that they are high-speed elevators compared to other types of elevators.
Types of traction elevators
There are three types of traction elevators that can be used in buildings:
Guided traction elevators
This type of elevator contains a special box for the gears that operate the machine, and it also contains steel ropes, a pulley, and an electric motor.
This type of elevator traction machines works through the connection between the gearbox and the electric motor that is made by operating the pulley or sheave and moving the ropes on which it is installed.
Guided traction elevators operate through alternating current and also it is suitable for the use of direct current. These elevators are very fast, as the maximum speed reaches the equivalent of 500 feet / minute. Despite this, they are among the lowest traction elevators in terms of speed rates.
Features of geared traction elevators (gear box elevators)
There are many advantages of gear elevators or gearboxes, which are as follows:
- It is characterized by the fact that the maintenance costs as well as its installation expenses are greatly reduced compared to other types of elevator traction machines.
- It is considered one of the elevators that save electricity, as it does not consume much energy.
- One of the most important features that distinguishes it is its high efficiency in operation, but it causes some noise because it urges a loud sound during the ascent and descent of the elevator cabin.
- Some designs of directed traction elevators bear very high weights and loads that sometimes reach about 13,000 kg, and thus they are among the few elevators that carry this weight.
- Despite these advantages, these elevators need regular gear maintenance, which increases their costs more than other types of elevators.
Gearless traction elevators
Gearless elevators are a type of traction elevators that operate without a gear operating system.
They contain a wheel and counterweight to adjust the balance of the cabin, an electric motor,
and a cable for operation.
The cables or traction ropes of gearless traction elevators attach to the upper part of the elevator
and are wound around the ropes on one side only, and on the other side a counterweight is attached to the opposite end of the rope or cable and the elevator cab is raised and lowered.
The weight of the elevator cabin together with the counterweight presses on the machine’s electric motor, and thus the beams are driven, and then the elevator works to move up and down
The most important features of gearless traction elevators
- Traction elevators without gears and so-called gearless elevators have a number of advantages,
- The most important thing that distinguishes it is that it is very energy-saving,
as it does not consume a lot of electricity compared to other elevators.
- The movement speed in the Girlless elevators is very high, reaching the equivalent of 2000 feet per minute.
- These elevators are characterized by strength and rigidity to a very large extent.
- Also, this type of elevator traction machines is suitable for installation in all types of residential and commercial buildings.
- Gearless elevators do not need maintenance except at long intervals,
which increases the cost savings.
Traction elevators without machine rooms
These elevators are among the modern types that were manufactured in the nineties of the last century and manufactured by Kony Company, which is the largest elevator manufacturing company, and it contains in its components a room for elevator traction machines designed above the elevator cabin.
These elevators operate by means of this machine, and in the event that they need some kind of maintenance, the technician opens the room from the top of the elevator car to detect the malfunction.
Advantages of using traction elevators that operate without a machine room
- There are many advantages that characterize this type of elevator traction machines,
and these advantages are as follows:
- These elevators are very fast, with speeds of up to 500 feet per minute.
- It is considered one of the elevators with a low cost compared to other types of elevators,
whether in terms of installation or maintenance costs as well.
- These elevators are highly suitable for medium-rise building types
The most important benefits of using traction elevators
There are many benefits that you can see when choosing to install elevator traction machines in your building, and the most important of these benefits are the following:
- One of the most important benefits achieved by traction elevators is that they can go to an unlimited number of floors in buildings, and therefore they are suitable for use in high-rise buildings.
- It is used with ease and safety and is quiet while moving up and down.
- The elevator accommodates the rear openings as well as the front of the elevator,
regardless of its design.
- It has a very small electric motor size,
and it needs less control room requirements than other elevators.
- It is considered to be super fast and can move between floors at a very fast rate.
- Its safety systems are designed with very high technologies to protect users from accidents from falling cabs and injuries resulting from damaged ropes, broken belts, or any other technical malfunctions.
- It is highly resistant to fire and accident risks, and does not require additional costs for decoration in its design.
- Environmentally friendly and significantly saves electricity.
The most important disadvantages of using traction elevators
There are some disadvantages that characterize elevator traction machines despite the many advantages, including:
- Some types of traction elevators carry limited loads and weights.
- The installation and maintenance costs are relatively high compared to other types of elevators.
- It is installed in a relatively long period of time, which increases the installation time.
- It usually needs a crane during installation that needs certain structural specifications.
Thus, we explained everything related to elevator traction machines, their types,
and the advantages and disadvantages of each type. Was the article useful?